- 29 January 2018
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Brain Haemorrhage: Causes, Symptoms And Treatment
Brain Haemorrhage (Bleeding)
Your brain is a soft part which is protected by a hard skull. It is a combination of nerves, veins, tissues, and arteries which are very soft and delicate. A brain haemorrhage is caused when an artery in the brain bursts. As the brain is enclosed inside the skull, the blood from the burst spreads all over the brain and compresses it damaging certain areas in the brain. When this bleeding exerts extra pressure on the brain it leads to a haemorrhage stroke.
The extra pressure built in the brain obstructs the flow of oxygen-rich blood into the brain tissue. Lack of oxygen supply to the brain leads to brain swelling and can even kill brain cells. The leaked blood forms into a mass, known as a haematoma.
A brain haemorrhage is a medical condition that can be life-threatening. It is essential to get medical treatment right away.
What Causes Brain Haemorrhage?
There are several risk factors and causes that can lead to a brain haemorrhage. The common causes of the brain haemorrhage are as follows.
1. Head Trauma or Injuries: Head injuries are the most common cause of bleeding in the brain. In most cases, these head injuries caused by traffic accidents, fall, collisions, sports injuries can lead to brain haemorrhage. Some injuries apparently may not cause external damage but can cause internal bleeding which can lead to a brain haemorrhage.
2. High Blood Pressure: It is a chronic condition that weakens the blood vessels. So, high BP can damage the fragile walls of small arteries inside the brain and significantly increase the risk of haemorrhage stroke. The risk becomes even higher in people who smoke and drink alcohol. Elderly people must also stay more cautious.
3. Brain Tumours: One of the complications of brain tumours is bleeding within the brain. As we discussed earlier, this bleeding can cause haemorrhagic stroke. However, the tendency of bleeding from the tumours depends upon the characteristics of tumours. For example, pituitary tumours are more prone to bleed whereas meningiomas bleed rarely.
4. Abnormalities In Blood Vessels: This is a kind of weakness in the blood vessels in the brain that may be developed at the birth. It is diagnosed only after the symptoms has been developed. It is also known as Arteriovenous malformations; it means an abnormal connection between arteries and veins in the brain. These abnormal connections lead to leakage of blood in the brain which can cause hemorrhagic stroke.
5. A Brain Aneurysm: An abnormally shaped blood vessel with a swelling area is often termed as an aneurysm. The swelling area becomes more delicate and can burst any time which causes bleeding in the brain and may lead to a stoke.
6. Amyloid Angiopathy: Amyloid (protein deposits) deposits formed inside the walls of blood vessels in the brain are referred to as amyloid angiopathy. Amyloid angiopathy that builds up in the brain makes the blood vessels fragile that are more likely to bleed. This bleeding often leads to hemorrhagic stroke or intracerebral haemorrhage.
7. Bleeding disorders: Haemophilia and sickle cell anaemia are inherited bleeding disorders as they both contribute to decreasing in blood clotting ability. Haemophilia is one of the bleeding disorder, where a person has low levels of certain proteins that helps in clotting of blood. If the blood doesn’t clot properly, it leads to excessive bleeding.
8. Use Of Cocaine: Usage of Cocaine and its products resulting in intracerebral haemorrhage in most of the cases. Cocaine usage can narrow your blood vessels which slow down the blood flow, the narrowed blood vessels undergo more pressure may burst and split blood all over the brain.
Some other causes that can lead brain haemorrhage are the use of methamphetamine, liver diseases, use of blood thinners etc.
How Can You Recognize Brain Haemorrhage?
Brain haemorrhage is a serious medical condition. A brain haemorrhage can show up a variety of different symptoms. If you notice any of the following symptoms, reach for a doctor immediately.
- Numbness or weakness in the face, arm and leg
- Facing difficulty in speaking
- A sudden or a severe headache
- Vision problems like double vision
- Loss of balance and coordination
- Unable to read, write
- Confusion or difficulty in understanding
- Nausea, vomiting
- Apathy, sleepiness
- Loss of consciousness
Some other common symptoms are dizziness, sudden weakness, tingling sensation in your face, arm, or leg, hand tremors, abnormal sense of taste etc.
How Is Brain Haemorrhage Treated?
There are different treatment options for the brain haemorrhage. When you see a doctor, based on your symptoms, they can determine which part of the brain is affected. The treatment for bleeding in the brain depends on various factors like location, cause, and extent of the haemorrhage. Early treatment results in a better outcome.
- In some cases, open surgeries are required to drain out the spilt blood out of the brain and to repair the torn arteries. Such surgeries can relieve pressure on your brain.
- In some cases, the fluid that surrounds the brain is drained out and create room for the hematoma to expand so that the swelling does not further damage the brain cells.
- Certain medications can help in reducing the effects of symptoms like painkillers to ease headaches. Sometimes, drugs are also used to control blood pressure. If you are at risk for seizures, your doctor may suggest you, to take antiepileptic drugs (drugs that prevent rapid, repetitive, stimulation of the brain that causes seizure activity).
- Long-term treatment is compulsory to overcome the symptoms caused by the damage of the brain. By considering your symptoms, treatment may be of different types which include physical, occupational and speech therapy. These treatments help the individuals restore brain functions, muscle function or to improve communication such as the ability to speak.
Early diagnosis of the symptoms and better treatment can reduce the effects caused by a haemorrhage. At Sunshine Hospitals, we have the best doctors to take care of your brain haemorrhage problems and available all the time. If you find any of the symptoms similar to brain haemorrhage don’t neglect to reach us today. Having any other concerns regarding your health book an appointment and take better suggestions from the doctors.
About the Doctor:
Dr. Anitha – Neurologist
After completing her MBBS in 1999 and getting a gold medal from SVS Medical College in Mahboobnagar, Dr Anitha Kotha went on to become the Diplomate in National Board (DNB) General Medicine at the prestigious Nizam’s Institute of Medical Sciences(NIMS) for 3 years. After that, she did 3 years course of DM Neurology in NIMS and then worked as a Consultant Neurologist in Yashoda hospital -Somajiguda for 3 years. Dr Anitha is one of the most experienced neurologists and is a life member of the prestigious Indian Academy of Neurology and also the Medical Association of India.
About Sunshine Hospitals:
A Multi Super Speciality Institution, 500 bedded Sunshine Hospitals (Paradise Circle, Secunderabad) is promoted by globally reputed Joint Replacement Surgeon Dr AV Gurava Reddy (Orthopedic Doctor) and like-minded associates who share the objective of making world-standard healthcare available, affordable and accessible to the common man. Sunshine has now become one of the best hospitals for many treatments including Orthopedic, Gastroenterology, Cardiology, Trauma and Neurology.